Enrichment and Sequencing of Albumin Protein from Urine
Disease-related diagnosis often requires enrichment of protein markers from biofluids. Analyzing biomarkers and variants of biomarkers, such as albumin, from biofluids is important to understand disease. Urine represents an ideal biomarker source as samples can be collected
via non-invasive methods, enabling temporal monitoring of patient conditions. In addition, physiological states are often reflected in urine as homeostasis leads to the continuous removal of biomarkers from blood. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in circulation (0.6 mM) accounting for 60% of the total proteins in plasma. However, albumin is normally filtered in the glomeruli and reabsorbed or catabolized by the proximal tubules, leading to absent or barely detectable albumin levels in urine. Thus, kidney damage and albumin leakage resulting from ailments such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) may manifest as albuminuria.